For many people, shallots are not much different from the bulb. But in fact, it is an independent species of the onion family, which is very popular in Western Europe. In Russia, you can find such names of this species as "frost" or "bitch".
What is shallot?
Shallot is a biennial plant, the mention of which is known from the 3rd century BC. The main vegetative organ of this plant is the bulb with a lot of daughter buds (buds). They sprout at the same time, forming at the same time a kind of nest, consisting of several small heads. On a single plant can be present from several pieces to several dozen heads. For this feature, shallots are also called family.Shallot close up
In order to get planting material does not have to grow seedlings from seeds. For this purpose, you can use any head. It is noteworthy that one bulb can be the basis for the appearance of several buds, the total weight of which is on average 200-300 grams, while a single copy reaches the size of a walnut.
How are shallots different from onions?
Onions and shallots have a large number of similarities, which is why they are mistakenly considered one kind. These criteria include the meaty head, weighing 15-40 grams, long green feathers, suitable for food and a two-year growing season. But in fact, these plants have several differences explaining their assignment to different species:
- Shallot can tolerate lower temperatures and matures much faster than its relative;
- The shallot grows in nests, and the turnip is single;
- The shallot pulp is more tender and pleasant, and the flavor is not so sharp;
- Onions are fastidious to conditions during storage, while shallots are distinguished by excellent keeping quality even at room temperature;
- The section consists of several zones with rudiments, and a turnip of concentric rings.
At first glance, it seems that these two species are very similar, but the name proper skill can be easily distinguished.
- Airat - This is a mid-season variety, the yield of which is 1.5 kilograms per square meter. The fruit is round with a yellow husk on average weighs 15-20 grams. Up to 5 bulbs can be formed in one nest. The taste of the harvest obtained is gentle, but at the same time acute;
- Garnet - mid-season variety with a semi-sharp taste, it is grown to produce both greens and bulbs. The shape of the fruit is rounded-flat, the average weight of one piece is 30 grams. The husk is painted in an unusual brown color with a grayish tint. From one square meter collect from 1.5 to 2.4 kilograms of the crop;
- Burly - the grade received the name for high resistance to gray decay and to a bolting. Fruits ripen in average terms, the vegetative period lasts 55-70 days. The bulbs covered with pink scales can weigh up to 50 grams, in one nest there are 5-7 bulbs. From one square meter collect up to 2.1 kilograms of fruits;
- Siberian Amber - fruits ripen in 56-60 days, in one nest there are 6-7 bulbs with bronze husks. Their weight can reach 30 grams. The taste of the fruit is semi-sharp. With one square meter you can collect up to 2 kilograms of onions.
- Siberian Amber
Terms of landing in an open ground
Planting dates are directly dependent on the purpose of growing the plant:
- If you plant onions for early harvest of feathers, it is recommended to plant them in open ground in late autumn or in greenhouses in early spring;
- For full heads, such work is performed in mid-April. Most accurately determine the date of planting using the soil temperature, it should be equal to 8-10 degrees.
When choosing a place for planting shallot, you should pay attention to all the individual characteristics of the plant:
- there should be a lot of sunshine on the plot, the presence of shade may contribute to the deterioration of fruiting;
- the soil should be light and loose. The use of loamy or sandy soil is welcomed;
- in the best way shallot gets accustomed in those places where before it grew potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers or peas;
- the ground should be slightly acidic, otherwise the bulbs become shallow, and the tops quickly turn yellow.
Before you plant onions need to prepare the soil. To this end, they dig it up in the fall, adding the following fertilizers:
- bucket of compost or rotted manure;
- 30 grams of superphosphate;
- 15-20 grams of potash fertilizers.
Planting material also needs to be prepared. A few days before planting, it is necessary to trim the neck of the seed drill and soak it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Positioning sevok on the bed, should follow a reliable scheme:
- the distance between the rows should be 30-40 centimeters;
- the distance between plants in the same row should be equal to 20-30 centimeters;
- in the event that onions are grown for seeding, the distance between the plants is reduced to 8-10 centimeters.
Immediately before planting the furrow, you need to pour plenty of water. Sevok deepened by 2-3 centimeters.Shallot growing on a bed
In order to get a rich harvest of shallot you need to properly care for the plant and follow all the rules:
- This culture does not need frequent watering. In temperate latitudes, the soil can be not moistened at all, and in the southern regions it can be irrigated in months without precipitation;
- Onions need timely weeding and loosening the soil;
- In early spring, plantings are fertilized with nitrogenous fertilizers, for example, urea;
- At the beginning of the growing season, poor soils are fertilized with complex mineral supplements.
Harvesting and storage
Harvest occurs at the end of July. Many gardeners argue that such work should be done before August 2. The readiness of the plant can be determined by the drooping leaves, which show signs of yellowing.
You can store shallots in almost any conditions. It can be stored in a dry room at room temperature. As a container, it is better to choose boxes with holes or meshes.
Before removing the fruits for storage, they must be dried in the open air for 20-30 days, after which they are disassembled into bulbs and the dried leaves are removed.Freshly picked shallot
Diseases and pests
Shallot onions are susceptible to the appearance of fungal diseases, which include false and ordinary powdery mildew, peronosporosis, cervical rot, etc. The affected plants will begin to wither and it is almost impossible to save them. The only solution will be complete removal. The healthy part of landings is treated with Quadrice, Mikosan or Pentophag solutions.
For the prevention of fungal diseases before planting sevok for 30 minutes soaked in the preparation of "Maxim".
Pests often settle on shallot. Most often you can find the following insects:
- Onion fly - the plant and the soil around it is treated with wood ash;
- Worms - the above-ground part of the plant is watered with a solution of salt (dilute 1 cup of salt in 10 liters of water);
- Onion Nematode - this pest is able to distort the bottom of the maternal bulb. Affected plants must be removed immediately;
- Aphid - these insects settle on onion feathers. To cope with them, you can use a decoction of pepper, potato skins or chamomile. Their chemical preparations best help Verticillin.
Shallots are a more delicate and sweet analogue of onions. Even a beginning gardener can grow such a crop. This is due to the fact that the plant is able to adapt to adverse weather conditions and does not require careful maintenance.