Homeland turkeys is America. Turkeys became domesticated about a thousand years ago. They got to Europe only in the 16th century, after the four journeys of Christopher Columbus.
Turkeys are colorful, majestic and at the same time, different in size poultry. They love space and freedom.. From the first days of life in the turkey community, a hierarchy begins to line up.Turkeys on a walk in the yard
A bold and cocky male appears and gliders are already visible - applicants for fattening for meat. In flocks of male turkeys, the right to fertilize female turkeys belongs to only one turkey, which stands at the top of the hierarchy.
Pros and cons of deducing
The clear advantage of growing turkey herds at home is to get healthy meat and eggs. Turkey meat is a dietary meat that has low cholesterol and high levels of beneficial trace elements and vitamins.Turkey eggs
It is hypoallergenic and easy to digest, useful for pregnant women, young children and athletes. Eggs also have a large set of useful components, occupy 3rd place in the number of nutrients, after quail eggs and guinea fowl eggs.
But, if we consider that turkey meat costs twice as much as chicken and eggs by the amount of nutrients and weight are three times more chicken, then this minus does not seem so significant.
The most famous breed for breeding
The most common breed of turkeys for breeding in their personal compound is the breed North Caucasian Bronze. It has an elongated body, small chest and bronze plumage.
These birds are very mobile, long-legged and well adapted to the search for food. Live weight of adult males from 13 to 18 kg, females 7-8 kg. Turkey egg production varies from 80 to 100 eggs per year.
Very beneficial breed for keeping white wide-breasted. They are divided into three main types:
- Heavy: the weight of males reaches 25 kg, the weight of females up to 10 kg;
- Average: the weight of males is 15 kg, and females 7kg;
- Lungs: turkeys weigh 7 kg, and turkeys up to 5 kg.
Turkey ripen for egg production by 9 months of age, bring up to 115-125 eggs per year.
The breed of turkeys is a bronze wide chest with a high viability of the young and almost one hundred percent fertility. Live weight of males up to 18 kg, females up to 10 kg.
Moscow white and bronze breed characterized by powerful body construction, productive fertility and early egg production. Turkeys start to be born already from 6 months, they bring in a year from 100 eggs. Live weight of males reaches 13 kg, females - 7 kg.
Conditions for keeping and growing
The main requirement in the content of turkeys, on which it is worth to focus, is the heat factor. The turkeys are frost-resistant birds themselves, but for full growth and development they need warmth and dryness in the pen.
The room should be often ventilated. Not rarely for keeping turkeys used "former" chicken coops, which are slightly modified by a larger bird.Turkeys in the aviary
The main indicators of the pen for 10 turkeys:
- Square not less than 5 square meters, since up to 2 birds can be placed on 1 square meter (ideally it should be 1 square meter per individual);
- Ventilation, to eliminate dampness;
- Straw beddingwhich must be changed at least twice a week;
- Perches, equipped at a height of 70-80 cm above the floor, 5-7 cm wide and 8-10 cm high.
- Lighting can be carried out using a conventional electric lamp, the power of which should be 60 watts.
- In order not to start parasitic organisms in the turkey, small boxes of sand and ash.
One turkey requires at least 40 cm perch, so there should be as many roosts as the birds will be located in the pen. The distance between the perches should be more than 60 cm.
Turkeys need constant walking. In summertime, street enclosures with an area equal to the number of birds are settled near the poultry house for them, at least one square meter is allocated per bird.
Conditions of arrangement of the summer pen:
- On the territory of the pen there should be a canopyunder which birds can hide from direct sunlight in hot weather;
- It would be ideal if the territory will grow alfalfa, oats and cloverthat are sown in early spring;
- Drinking bowls, the water in which should be changed as it is polluted, at least once a day;
- Feeders with barley, or oats.
In winter, when the air temperature is below 10 degrees, turkeys are also recommended to be let out for a walk. To do this, a layer of straw is lined up on the territory of the pen so that the birds do not freeze their paws, and food is scattered around the pen.
Walking turkeys is a must, otherwise they will only be fat, not gaining muscle mass.
Most turkey breeders keep individuals of different sexes separately.
To females it is launched in this case only by one manufacturer. But there are poultry farmers who prefer to keep all the birds in one aviary. In this case, a flock of turkeys must have no more than 5 females per male, otherwise it will not be able to cover all turkeys.
If a herd of turkeys is large, then it is better to divide it into small groups., each of which will have one manufacturer.
Care and feeding during puberty
Puberty in turkeys occurs at the age of 8-10 months. For the most complete development, turkeys must be fed with a special mixture, which consists of:
- Yeast - 5 grams;
- Carrots and greens 70-80 grams;
- Cottage cheese 20 grams;
- Sprouted corn 100g.
Turkey starts to lay eggs from 10 months. Very often they suffer from the "hen" syndrome, therefore, in order to collect the eggs, it is often necessary to drive it away.
It is very important to monitor the feeding of rushing individuals. When the birds are just beginning to nest, they need to be fed up to 5 times a day. In winter, it is necessary to give moistened grain crops, finely chopped carrots, grass meal. In the summer, cereals with greens.
After mating, the egg-laying process begins.
How to keep and growJuvenile turkey poults
During egg laying, a young turkey can carry up to 17 eggs, which must be checked for fertilization. To do this, the eggs in turn need to be dipped in a container with water, if the egg sinks, then return it to the nest, if it pops up, into the refrigerator.
The process of incubation of eggs lasts up to 28 days. At this time, it is necessary to ensure that the turkey ate in time. Feeding is done in the morning. It is best to feed the brood soaked and swollen oats. When a turkey eats food, it is imperative that the laying of eggs be covered with warm cloth at this time to prevent overcooling.
One turkey can sit and grow not only its offspring, but also someone else's. One bird is able to raise 75-80 turkey poults.
How to keep and how to care for turkey poults
The heat factor is the basis for growing turkey poults. The congested youngsters are highly exposed to various diseases, which can prevent them from gaining the right weight, even with a good balanced diet.
Poults need to be bred in cardboard boxes with cloth litter, or dry fine sawdust. For 10 kids, a container with dimensions of a meter per meter and a wall height of up to 40 cm is suitable.Feeding turkey poults
Heating and lighting is produced by electric lamps, the power of which must be at least 40 watts. Electric bulbs are fixed on top of the box, using a desk lamp. You can drop the lamp directly into the box, but for this, it is necessary that it be in a special weighted glass canopy.
The first two days of turkey poults are kept around the clock, gradually reducing the light regime by 30-35 minutes.
From 20 days the light mode lasts 15 hours. In addition, the first 10 days of life of babies should maintain the temperature up to +36 degrees, gradually lowering and bringing it to + 25 degrees. In two months the temperature should be +20 degrees.Turkey chicks
Under such conditions, poults are recommended to keep until the end of fattening.that is, up to 7 months.
Turkeys are susceptible to the development of diseases, most of which are fatal.
Major diseases of domestic turkeys and turkeys
- Coccidosis - development in the body of a bird of the simplest microorganisms leading to the death of the carrier.
- Trichomoniasis morbidity It occurs in the body of birds during the absorption of Trichomonas by drinking water, or contact with other species of birds that are carriers of the infection.
- Tuberculosis. It develops when not keeping the rules of turkey keeping. Direct sunlight is the only source of healing for diseased birds.
- Pasteurellosis. Most often occurs in fattened turkey poults, which age from 1 to 2 months. The reason is the turkey gnawing of manure and the harmful substance pasteurella contained in it, which is destroyed from direct sunlight within 24 hours.
- Development parasitic organisms in the digestive tract.
- Aspergillosis - a fungal disease of the pulmonary system of organs that develops as a result of the presence of straw in the open-air cage, or other litter containing fungal microorganisms.
Prevention of young animals when growing
- On the 1st day the solution is soldered ascorbic acid with glucose, because the turkey is still weak and unable to absorb other complex elements;
- Day 2 to 5 Ireks-vital (pinch is diluted per liter of water);
- You can also amino vital (pinch per liter of water).
The earlier the turkey poults start feeding, the more viable they become. On the first day it is best to feed a hard-boiled and chopped egg.
Then, specialized feed for young stock is given up to 40-45 days, and also to include in the ration of food dairy fodder, converse, sour milk and buttermilk. Be sure to give the kids fine-cut green nettle, dandelions, clover. At one and a half months, you can transfer them to an adult diet.
- From the 6th to the 10th day is given to the chicks in small quantities. furozolidonewhich goes for the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases;
- From the 15th to the 20th day turkeys need to be drunk amproliumthat goes against coccidia;
- Before you let out turkey poults you need to give them ASD-2 - fraction against fungal and aspergillosis;
- In 40 days is soldered metronidazolefor 4 days (4 tablets per liter of water). It will protect the young from the development of the simplest microorganisms, which are formed when pecking earthworms and can cause the death of the turkey.
What to feed the birds
In preparation for the winter period, it is recommended to prepare for turkeys lime, birch and poplar brooms, which are subsequently suspended in the house at a height accessible for turkeys and are a source of additional vitamins.Feed for feeding
The diet of adults includes:
- Feed, which consists of proteins, vitamins and proteins. Usually used for feeding males.
- Oats, preferably germinated.
- For fattening it is best to feed turkeys wheat.
- Plant vegetable crops (in the summer).
- Crushed vegetables (potato, carrot, turnip).
- Greenery (alfalfa, green onions, clover, dandelions).
- Young twigs trees, hay, sauerkraut (in winter).
If you raise a bird for fattening, then you need to feed it more wheat and other cereals. It is better to wet the cereals with water during the morning feeding and to give dry food in the evening. In order for the meat to be tender and juicy, you need as much as possible to feed the greens and vegetables.
In order for laying turkeys to be carried in a balanced manner, their diet should also include:
- 150 grams boiled potatoes per day despite the fact that the hen produces up to 9 eggs per month, if from 15 to 18 eggs per month, then potatoes, respectively, from 110 to 130 grams.
- Bone flour and table salt should be daily up to 2 grams, no matter how many eggs the bird produces.
- Fish waste should be 30 grams with egg production of 9 eggs per month, 40 grams when issuing 15 eggs per month, 50 grams if the turkey produces 18 eggs.
- Cottage cheeseif the laying of 3 eggs per month, then 3 grams per day, 9 eggs, then 5 grams, 15-20 eggs, then 10 grams.
Breeding turkeys in their own backyard, subject to compliance with all necessary measures for the care and raising of young stock, will be a very interesting and profitable occupation even for a novice farmer.
Keep and grow turkey herd on free-range summer and the cellular content in the winter will give a large number of large eggs and dietary, enriched with vitamins and various trace elements of meat. Recently, the popularity of broiler breeds of turkeys, which are contained for fattening. They are not picky about food and are easy to maintain.