Pear is an old variety of apples, which is obtained by natural evolution. Apple trees of this variety have value among gardeners and amateur gardeners for the excellent properties of apples, for frost resistance and high yield.
Apple trees of the Grushivka variety are distributed in all regions of the Russian Federation. But if you plan to plant seedlings, it is worth exploring the characteristics of this variety of fruit crops.
Description of the apple variety Grushivka
Variety Grushivka - a variety of apple trees, which appeared by natural breeding, that is, naturally. This variety is one of the oldest, more than 200 years old. Even in ancient Russia there are mentions of these apples. In 1797, the apple tree Grushovka was described in detail by the famous scientist A.T. Bolotov in scientific work.
On the basis of Grushovka, other varieties of apple trees were obtained by crossing - Grushovka ruchnaya, Grushovka zimnaya, Grushovka Moscow.
Apple tree description
The trees of the Grushovka variety have the following characteristics:
- Large in size. The height of the tree is 6-7 meters;
- Crohn, branched with a round view, young trees have a pyramidal crown;
- Apple Trees A pear is an erect plant with a sympodial branch type, branches without thorns;
- Bark branches has a yellowish-orange color;
- Vegetative type shoots have a bark with a reddish-brown color;
- The shoots of the generative type or annuli are located in large numbers, their coloring is much darker than the main branches;
- The leaves are arranged on long petioles, the shape of an ellipse.;
- By color, leaf blades have a green or yellowish-green tint;
- The leaves of young trees have an edge on the surface, in adults there is a rare down on the leaves or their surface is smooth;
- In the period of flowering there are flowers with pink petals, after a while they change the shade to light pink or white.
At the time of fruiting, fruit trees that have the following characteristics appear on the trees of the Grushovka variety apple trees:
- Ripe small apples. The weight of one fruit at the time of ripening is from 60 to 80 grams. The maximum weight is from 100 to 120 grams;
- The fruits have a round shape with a flattened structure;
- The surface of the apples is greenish-yellow with a large number of stripes and inclusions with red or pink color;
- The peel has a fine structure with a smooth surface. On top there is a coating with natural wax;
- The fruits have a soft pulp with high juiciness, which has a bright and pleasant aroma.
Apple trees Grushovka grow in all regions of Russia. They are widely distributed in the following regions:
- All regions included in the European part of the territory of Russia;
- The Urals;
- Western regions;
- East Siberia.
In addition, the variety grows in other CIS countries - in Belarus and in Ukraine.
You may also be interested in the following apple varieties:
Productivity and storage of Moscow and winter varieties
Pear is an early variety. The period of ripening harvest begins in late July and early August. Apple trees can live up to 50-60 years. The period of fruiting begins with 4 years after planting. The yield in the first year of fruiting reaches 10 kilograms, and if the tree is 15 years old, then the yield level reaches 80-100 kilograms from one tree.
Fruit harvesting begins in early August.. The shelf life of the crop is 2-3 weeks.
Variety Grushovka samobeplodny, for fruit ovary pollinate pollen from other varieties is necessary. For pollination of this variety, you can use pollinators such as Antonovka, Papirovka, Anis Polosaty, Kornichnoe, Belfleur-Kitaika.Pear apples on the tree. High Yields
Advantages and disadvantages
Variety Grushovka has a number of advantages, of which it is worth highlighting the main ones:
- Trees have high frost resistance and can withstand freezing to temperatures below 50 degrees Celsius;
- Long life expectancy up to 50-60 years;
- Have early fruiting;
- The rapid emergence of mature fruits;
- High yield;
- High level of useful components in apples;
- You can make compotes, jams, preserves, juices, jam from apples.
In addition to the advantages, there are also negative sides:
- Trees are prone to diseases, pests;
- High susceptibility to weather conditions;
- Not regular fruiting;
- It has an uneven ripening of fruits. On one tree, some fruits completely ripen and crumble, while others remain green;
- Short shelf life. Harvest maximum will lie 2-3 weeks;
- Not intended for transportation.
Photo of ripe apples
The following are the varieties of apples varieties Grushovka:Pear on a bush Grushivka Moskovskaya Pears eastern
Suitable basis for growing - loamy, sandy and sod.
Rules for planting seedlings:
- Holes should be done with steep slopes. The width of the holes should be 100 cm and a depth of 60 cm;
- 4 days before planting, fertilizer should be placed in the pits. In each hole you need to fill 25 kilograms of humus;
- In the dug hole should be made for deepening the branched roots of young trees;
- Landing should be done with pegsand to which planted seedlings are tied up;
- Pegs should be driven from the north side;
- After planting the tree immediately watered. For one seedling it takes about 30 liters of water;
- After watering, the wells are mulched with humus and compost.
- For the good development of the tree at the time of the first flowering 85% of flowers break, 50% of fruits in a green state;
- Apple varieties Grushivka do not tolerate severe drought, therefore, they must be watered at least 2-3 times a week. A complete cessation of watering should be done in late August, early September, so that the tree has time to prepare for wintering;Fertilizing the tree is required in the second season. In the first year of his life, you can loosen and constantly water.
- In spring, to fertilize trees, you need to fill up rotted horse manure or humus in the ground. At 1 square meter 8-12 pounds. 400-600 grams of urea are used for mineral fertilizers;
- In the autumn period, trees should be fertilized with complex-type fertilizer mixtures. "Kemira autumn". On 1 square. meter will need 30-40 grams;
- In the autumn, mulching with horse manure is carried out to improve the winter hardiness of the tree; the layer thickness should be 5 cm;
- To make the trunk straight and formed, they trim the tree a year after disembarkation. During pruning cut the top branches to the third part. The barrel is shortened by 30-40 cm. Further trimming is done as needed.
Recommendations for whitewashing:
- Before starting whitewash, all cracks and various holes in the bark of the tree should be covered with garden pitch;
- For whitewashing you need to prepare a solution, which should consist of 2 kilograms of quicklime, 6 liters of water and 1 kilogram of greasy clay. All components are mixed, add a little skimmed milk to whitewash adhere better to the tree;
- Whitewashing of trees should be done in November, after the end of the autumn rain showers%
- The surface of a trunk and fork which is the basis of large branches is whitened.
In order to avoid the scab of apple trees, every year during the autumn period it is necessary to completely clear the garden of old foliage, windfalls. Be sure to perekapal the entire surface of the wheel circleand also to treat all wounds with special means, for example garden pitch.
If the trees already have lesions from scab, then they need to be treated with Bordeaux mixture of 1-3% solution. When preparing this mixture, it is necessary to mix the solution of copper sulfate and lime.
During the cooking of the 1-st solution, 10 grams of copper sulphate and 120 grams of quicklime should be poured into 10 liters of water. Pre-copper sulphate must be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. Then slowly pour 5 liters of cold water into this mixture.
Lime also needs to be diluted in 1 liter of boiling water. Then 5 liters of cold water is poured into this solution. Both solutions are individually filtered through gauze material. Next, a solution of copper sulphate is poured into the lime solution. Everything is mixed up. Trees must be processed on both sides with this mixture.
Other means will help get rid of the scab damage. The most effective are "Strobe" and "Skor". Means "Strobe" apples need to be processed in early spring, and "Skor" in the autumn. Both drugs are diluted the same way - 1 ampoule in 10 liters of water.
Olga: "In my garden, the apple tree of the Grushovka variety has been growing for a long time. This variety is early. I gather ripe fruit in early August. Despite the fact that the apples are small, they taste excellent. When fully ripe, they become green silt and yellow with a lot of blotches of red or pink. The structure of the pulp is white. However, they are not stored for too long. "
Helena: "I have a few Grushovka apple varieties growing on the plot. They are about 15 years old. I get a big harvest and collect up to 3 bags of apples from each tree. The ripening period begins in early August. Ripe apples have excellent taste and high juiciness. However, only the shelf life not great, just 3 weeks. "
Alexander: "In our garden one apple tree of the Grushovka variety grows. It is almost 20 years old. The ripening period is quite early. We already pick ripe apples at the beginning of August. The color of ripe fruits is light green with a lot of red patches. They taste excellent - juicy, sweet and fragrant. "
The apple tree of the Grushevka variety is an old variety that has a high value. Trees perfectly take root in the region with any climate, as well as tolerate severe frosts. And ripe apples have excellent taste and healthy qualities. However, almost every year you can get a high level of harvest.