Plum is one of the most famous fruit crops. It came from Asia and spread throughout Europe, not forgetting Russia. This shrub is quite unpretentious and easy to take root. on the suburban areas, but a good harvest should be counted only with proper care and proper planting.
When is it better to plant a plum: consider the variety, climatic zones, season
The main rule of any planting or replanting a tree - it must have time to settle down before the onset of heat or cold, otherwise the whole year will be wasted.
In other words, it is necessary to plant and replant the plum:
- In early spring: it is necessary to plant before the start of sap flow and the appearance of buds, that is, already in April, as soon as the earth warms up. In this case, the drain will immediately begin to actively develop and feed, which will give her the opportunity to get stronger until the next wintering. Also, the advantages of a spring transplant should include the time: if the gardener is slightly delayed in planting, he will not have to worry about the health of the seedling.
- In the first half of autumn, from the end of September to the 20th of October. It is important to have time to transplant 3-4 weeks before the onset of cold weather, otherwise the plant will freeze. Transplantation in the fall helps to fully prepare the garden for the next year.
The timing of the transplant is also influenced by the selected grade.: for example, winter-hardy varieties can be planted immediately after the snow melts.
Equally important terrain: for the Moscow region and the Central zone are the terms of transplantation described above. In Siberia and the Urals, it is worth doing the autumn transplant a little earlier, when it remains about a month before the frost, it is also necessary to dwell on specially bred varieties.
Advantages and disadvantages of the fall landing
Transplanting plums in the fall has several advantages:
- The opportunity not to lose the year if the tree does not take root. If during the fall transplant the plum cannot settle down or suffers, in the spring the bush can be replaced with a new one without spending a whole year.
- No need to rush in the spring. In the spring it is important to have time to plant the plum before it starts to develop buds, but the earth does not always have time to warm up, and you should not forget about the night frosts.
- In the autumn, transplantation can be combined with other agricultural works, without wasting time.
- Plum will receive a double "portion" of fertilizers - in the fall during transplanting and in spring.
- Having transplanted the plum in autumn, in the spring the bush will start to grow immediately, which will allow it to grow faster.
The disadvantages of the autumn works include lack of ability to trace the plant. If in the spring the gardener appears regularly at the dacha and immediately draws attention to the problem, in winter the tree will have to wait until the very thaw.
Also, in some regions, winters are characterized by an unpredictable nature (they may be too hot or, on the contrary, warm), which also affects the characteristics of transplanting and growing.
Choosing time for transplant, it is important to focus on your own comfort and climate. For example, if winter is not consistent, and seedlings often die due to temperature fluctuations, it is worth planting them in spring.
Basic landing rules
Before you start transplanting, remember some important rules:
- you can replant only young trees, not older than 2-3 years. At an older age, the plant already develops a huge root system, due to which transplantation will be difficult;
- when digging it is important not to damage the roots, otherwise the bush will need an additional year to restore the system. It is best to perform a transplant without cleansing the roots;
- when transporting plants from one place to another, it is important to carefully handle the roots;
- when planting plums in the spring, it is necessary to prepare the pits in the fall, while in the autumn, 2-3 weeks before they start.
Step-by-step guide on planting in open ground, growing and care
Successful transplantation depends on several factors, we have prepared for you a step-by-step guide on planting and caring for a garden plum seedling.
Seedlings training: it occurs in three stages. First, you need to water the bush plentifully to make it easier to dig. To do this, pour 4-5 buckets of plain water on plum roots.
Then you need to dig a tree in a circle at a distance of 70 cm from the trunk, dig a cone-shaped piece with the roots and carefully pull out the plant, trying not to damage the roots.
If the tree needs to be transported, its roots should be wrapped with a bag or film, securing it with a rope.For planting plum need to prepare seedlings, trying not to damage the roots
Choosing a place: plum likes a sunny warm place with protection from the wind, without excess water and without stagnant melt water. Best of all, the plant survives on moderately moist and fertile soils, clay soil does not suit him.
Other large crops should not grow close to the shrub, otherwise they will drag all nutrients from the plum and create shade.
Articles that may be of interest to you:
- The benefits and harms of plums for human health.
- The best varieties of plums for growing on your site.
- Care of the plum in the fall in the country.
Planting in open ground: The first thing is to prepare the ground in advance. With an autumn transplant, this is done in 2-3 weeks, that is, at the beginning of autumn.
It is necessary to dig pits 70cm * 70cm * 70cm at a distance from each other. Then pour a layer of drainage (broken brick or stone) - this will help remove moisture stagnation.
After you need to pour a layer of compost and cover it with a thin layer of earth - this will save the roots from excessively strong action of fertilizers. The remaining earth is mixed in equal proportions with the humus, add 300 grams of wood ash and fall asleep in the pit.
When planting, dig a hole in the ground and carefully carry a bush there, straightening the roots. Then the seedling is watered abundantly, and the ground is mulched.
When planting it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is 3-5 cm higher than the ground level.When planting plum seedlings in the ground, it is necessary to ensure that the root collar is 3-5 cm higher than the ground level.
Aftercare: the first 2-3 years, the main care of the plum will be in its growth and the formation of the crown.
To do this, you need to regularly take care of, remove the lower branches, shorten unnecessarily long and thicken the crown. It is important to do this while the branches are young, then pruning will be painless.
Plum requires regular watering (about 5 buckets of water under each tree), loosening the soil and removing weeds. With a bountiful harvest, it is necessary to provide branches with supports so that they will not break.
In the spring as a complementary food, you can use a solution of bird droppings or cowshed, also suitable nitrogen fertilizers. In the autumn It is necessary to make superphosphate or potassium sulfate - 100 grams per plum.
Proper preparation for winter
Winter preparations must begin. a few weeks before the cold. Fertilizers must be applied for each drain: a bucket of humus, 200-300 grams of ash and 30 grams of potassium sulphate or superphosphate will be required per square meter of land.
Fertilizers need to be slightly dug, loosening the ground, and plenty of water.
Then need inspect the crown and trunk, removing all pests. The spoiled leaves and branches are cut and burned away from the trees, the tainted bark is scraped off with a scraper and a metal brush.
In the process, you need to be careful not to hurt healthy areas.For wintering, plum is fertilized, pests are harvested, and the trunk is whitened and covered;
After leaf fall for insect protection the barrel is whitened with a special solution from the store or a mixture of equal parts of lime, clay and cowshed. You can also add copper sulphate - 30 grams per liter of whitewash.
Just before the frosts trunk warmed with sacking or straw. If winter promises to be cold, you can use slate or roofing felt. If the bushes are still small, you can cover them with a bag or spruce branches, make a "tent" of the boards.
Any “shelter” should be carefully secured so that the wind does not blow it away. Soil under the tree spud and spread with manure.
Is it possible and how to replant the plum in the fall?
Wherein plum extremely sensitive to any wounds and because of this, it will take longer to take root in a new place.
When transporting you need to follow the branches and roots: the first can be carefully tied with a rope, the second - to wrap a bag. The rest of the transplant occurs as described above.
At first glance, the drain may seem rather capricious and difficult to maintain, but this is not true. Careful and careful care is mainly required young seedlingsthat are just starting to grow.
A few years later formed tree will require a minimum of effort - watering, feeding and insulation for the winter.