Red-leaved hazel is known for a long time by the use of its fruits and excellent honey-bearing properties. Besides shrub is actively used for decorative purposes. It fits well into the landscape and serves as a worthy decoration of personal plots.
Description of hazel red leaf
Krasnolistnaya hazel is a monoecious shrub that grows mainly in central Russia, which is often called hazelnut. In natural conditions it grows in deciduous and mixed forests, but can occur in the steppe, forest-steppe. The soil prefers moist, rich in mineral fertilizers.Krasnolistnaya Hazel - forest resident of central Russia
Plant height ranges from 3 to 7 meters. The leaves are hazel-oval-round reddish-brown color. The bottom side of the leaf plate turns green by autumn. On one plant grow female flowers and male earrings. They bloom in early spring before the leaves appear. Hazel blossoms in mid-March, the fruits ripen in August - September. Grows quickly, begins to bear fruit at 4 - 5 years after disembarkation. Hazel fruits are called nuts. Nuts are connected in stems of 2 - 5 pieces. The shrub bears fruit annually, but yields alternate from moderate to abundant. The total lifespan of a bush - 50 - 80 years.
The composition and benefits of walnut
Hazelnuts are incredibly helpful. In their composition they contain:
- easily digestible proteins;
- B vitamins;
- vitamins of group E;
- vitamins of group C;
- iron salts.
Eating hazel nuts is useful for both adults and children. They give young organisms the microelements necessary for growth. In adulthood, heart function and brain activity are maintained.. Kernels are eaten raw, roasted, dried. They are added to soups, roasts, desserts, liqueurs. Nut flour, crushed and ground walnuts has a wide application in cooking.Red Hazel Nuts
Hazel has always been famous not only for its taste, but also for its healing properties.:
- Fresh kernels are thoroughly triturated with a small amount of water, getting nut milk. This product has a high nutritional value and recommended for use by a weakened patient.
- Walnut infusions successfully used for diseases of the lungs, kidneys and stomach.
- Honey Rubbed Nuts beneficial effect on the circulatory system body, relieve pain with rheumatism and gout.
- Nutmeal flour mixed with beaten egg yolk is an excellent remedy for thermal burns.
- Peanut butter widely used in the fight against worms. It is also added to many moisturizing facials and creams.
- Walnut infusions noticeably strengthen the immune system and increase hemoglobin.
- Thanks to a combination of zinc and vitamins of group B, hazel fruits used to increase potency, stimulation of spermatogenesis and normalization of the pelvic organs.
- Nuts have lactogenic properties and help increase the amount of milk for lactating women.
- Hazelnut Extract increases the tone of the central nervous systemnormalizes bowel activity.
- Nutted Vitamin E helps to cope with sore throat and cold.
Planting and tree care
Practically all types of soil are suitable for planting hazel, except arid and marshy. It grows better on fertile drained soil without a large content of stones and sand. The bushes are quite shade tolerant, but in closed, shaded areas, the harvest is significantly reduced. It prefers well-lit, not windy places - slopes, beams, outskirts of the forest. The plant is frost-resistant, but in severe winters there is a danger of freezing. It is recommended to plant on the eastern, north-eastern low slopes, since in spring there is the least fluctuation in temperature, which will reduce the likelihood of burns of the inflorescences.
It is recommended to plant a plant in spring or autumn, but the most favorable time is mid-September. For planting a bush you need to prepare a hole 70x60 cm. A thick layer of humus is laid out at the bottom of the pit at the rate of 10-15 kg per plant. For a good survival of the bush can be added to the humus potassium salt and superphosphate. Also in the planting pit is recommended to add land from under another growing hazel. On the roots of the bush are formed mycoses, which are a combination of fungi and the root system of the plant. Adding this soil allows the seedling to grow and develop faster.It is recommended to plant the red leaf hazel in spring or autumn
Before planting, seedlings should be cut to 25 - 35 cm. The root system should be placed in a special mixture of humus and clay - this will improve the survival rate of the plant.
You can plant bushes at a distance of 5 - 6 m from each other. If the Krasnopolisnaya hazel leaf is planted for decorative purposes, then the distance can be reduced to 3–4 m. The planted seedling must be tied to a wooden support.
To get a rich harvest you need the right and timely care for the plant.:
- Watering. Despite the drought resistance, watering the plants should be regular. It is especially important during planting and rooting seedlings. Watering hazel is better early in the morning or late in the evening so that the scorching sun does not harm the roots. For irrigation it is better to use warm spring water.
- Top dressing. It is recommended to feed the bush with organic fertilizers once every 3 to 4 years, and mineral fertilizers should be applied every year. Before the appearance of the fruit, you can fertilize the soil with urea.
- Formation. For good growth and development it is necessary to thin the bush. In autumn, once every 6 to 9 years old, underdeveloped branches should be sawn off, leaving 7 to 10 trunks. It is important to ensure that the trunks are branched off from the root evenly, and not grouped on any one side. If preference is given to formation in the form of a tree, then 1 trunk is left, from which skeletal branches then branch off.
- Loosening. Loosening the soil is desirable to produce after each watering of the plant. This is especially important in the process of its rooting.
Breeding rules for this variety
There are several ways of breeding hazel. It multiplies seeds, layering, dividing the bush and cuttings. It is important to remember that varietal characteristics fully preserve hazel only during vegetative propagation.
Hazel Krasnopolistnaya well propagated by layering. For this purpose, young annual shoots are used. A small groove with a depth of 15–20 cm is excavated near the shoot.. Escape bends into the groove, covered with earth and watered abundantly with warm water. The top of the shoot must be firmly tied to a wooden peg next to it. Separate the escape from the parent bush should not be.Reproduction of Red-leaved Hazel by Layers
After a month, the buds on the shoot give their own shoots. In the middle of summer, when they grow to 15 - 20 cm, they roll up by 2/3 of their height.. During the summer hilling repeat 3 -4 times. During transplantation, the processes are separated from each other. From one shoot, several new seedlings are obtained.
Seed propagation is quite a long and laborious process. Large ripened nuts are selected for planting. Plant can be in the fall and spring. Sowing is recommended in fertilized moist soil to a depth of 5 - 6 cm.Reproduction of red hazelnut nuts
The distance between the seeds in the groove should not be less than 10 cm, between the grooves - not less than 20 cm. The top of the groove is covered with a mixture of humus and peat 3–5 cm thick. If the seeds are planted in the fall, the grooves should be insulated with sawdust, hay or moss. Seedlings are dug out of the garden 2 years after germination and planted in a permanent place.
By dividing the bush, the hazelnut Krasnopolistnaya reproduces quite easily. The dug bush must be divided into several parts so that each part has a trunk with roots 20-30 cm long. Each part is planted in a deep hole and poured abundantly with warm water. This method is actively used in the discharge of nut plantations.
Red-haired hazel rooted hard and long. The most favorable outcome is possible with the use of cuttings from two year old shoots. DFor cuttings are selected the strongest shoots that are cut off from the bush in the morning. They are planted in the soil of a mixture of sand and peat. The soil should be constantly moistened. Direct sunlight is detrimental to cuttings, as are cold drafts.
Red-leaved hazel begins to bear fruit at 4-5 years of its life. Nuts ripen in August - September, rarely at the end of July. The main sign of maturity is the yellowing of fruits and their separation from the branches. The harvest from one bush can reach 20 kg. Collected for storage of fruits is recommended to be dried and stored in canvas bags.
Susceptibility to diseases and pests
Hazel is quite a disease resistant variety. The main pests affecting the plant include the following:
- nut weevil;
- kidney mite;
- aphid ordinary;
- drill beetles.
From pests bushes should be protected Intavir. Early treatment is recommended before the disclosure of the kidneys, repeated - after the formation of leaves.
Red-leaved Hazel is susceptible to various fungal diseases.. Colloidal sulfur and spraying the bush with Bordeaux mixture are used against them.
Proteins, nuts and woodpeckers cause serious damage to the crop.
The hazelnut Krasnolistnaya is simple in landing and cultivation, easily transfers temperature drops and humidity. It is highly adaptable.. With minimal care, the gardener will be pleased with high productivity and aesthetic beauty.